We generate additional heat with the help of minerals by burning them. But no more than 40% of the energy released during the combustion of coal or gas is used for heating. This means that more than half of the heat energy we throw into the surrounding space. When generating 1 kW / h of electricity, 135 kcal is emitted from the CHP plant and 1900 kcal of additional heat from the nuclear power plant. Because of this, the average temperature of water bodies rises by 5-12 °, the temperature of the soil - by 2-4 °, and the air temperature by about 6-7 °. And although the energy we have produced is comparable to only 0.005% of the sun's heat, even such a slight fluctuation affects the natural balance.
Note, I'm not even talking about smoke and pollution of the environment with industrial waste, but about temperature pollution. For the biosphere's delicate balance, sometimes even a very slight temperature fluctuation is enough to harm living organisms. The main option for reducing this impact can only be the choice of alternative energy sources: water, wind, solar radiation. Or the energy of an active volcano.
In Iceland, such a heating system is prevalent. Most of Iceland's cities are heated by geothermal energy from the Reykjavik station. The temperature of geothermal water is about 320 ° - 360 ° C, so it is not supplied directly to homes but is used to heat cold water, which is then used for heating, bathing, or other necessary needs. There are also additional stations such as Nesyvellir located in the Hengill region. Hengill is an active volcano with an area of 100 km2. Although the mountain is dynamic, its last eruption occurred about 2,000 years ago and is unlikely to happen in 2000. The site has excellent hiking trails that lead to the hot thermal springs.